17

May

Smart People Do More Drugs: Because of Evolution

Evolutionary psychologist Satoshi Kanazawa has this theory, which he calls the Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis. Here’s how it goes: intelligence evolved as a way to deal with “evolutionary novelties”—to help humans respond to things in their environment to which they were, as a species, unaccustomed. Thus, smart people are more likely to deal with new things and try them. Those new things seem to include drugs. READ MORE

Cf.

12

May

theeconomist:

Daily chart: how do people spend their time? Each day the French spend twice as long eating as do the Americans, according to a report from the OECD. The Japanese work the longest hours, but waste the least time on unpaid chores.

theeconomist:

Daily chart: how do people spend their time? Each day the French spend twice as long eating as do the Americans, according to a report from the OECD. The Japanese work the longest hours, but waste the least time on unpaid chores.

10

May

Special Report | How the Media Have Covered bin Laden’s Death

In the first three days since the death of Osama bin Laden, the attention given to the event in both traditional and new media has been only nominally focused on the political ramifications of the terrorist’s death.

Instead, the discussion across a broad range of mainstream media, on Facebook, Twitter and in the blogosphere, has centered on trying to sort out what happened and on people’s feelings about it—including significant debate in social media over whether the reports might be a hoax. But so far the coverage has defied the tendency seen in many major national news events to turn quickly partisan. 

In the mainstream press, coverage has focused on trying to parse out the details leading up to and during the dramatic raid, and on sorting through the national and international reaction to it. Those two themes together accounted for half the bin Laden coverage since Sunday night, May 1, and through Wednesday, May 4.

On Facebook and Twitter, meanwhile, citizens have used these social media tools to express black humor about bin Laden’s death. The largest share of discussion there, 19%, has involved people sharing jokes. The second largest theme involved the question of whether bin Laden was really dead, and weighing the pros and cons of the proof offered. That discussion accounted for 17% of the conversation. 

And in the blogosphere, which often takes a contrarian view to that offered in the mainstream media, the largest share of the discussion (14%) involved passing along news about the raid. Almost as much (13%) concerned fears about possible reprisals for bin Laden’s death. And a notable amount of the discussion, 10%, involved the hoax theme.
In the political discussion that did occur, bloggers were evenly divided over whether President Obama deserved more credit or whether the policies of President Bush did. On Facebook and Twitter, conversation crediting Obama is twice that praising Bush.

These are some of the findings of a special report on media attention to bin Laden’s death produced by the Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism. The report used computer technology by Crimson Hexagon that examined more than 120,000 news stories, 100,000 blog posts, and 6.9 million posts on Twitter or Facebook from May 1 through May 4.

There is no doubt the bin Laden story is huge. The early wall-to-wall coverage of the bin Laden story accounted for an extraordinary 89% of the mainstream media newshole on May 2 and May 3, as measured by PEJ’s ongoing News Coverage Index. At this pace, bin Laden’s death would easily be the biggest weekly story since the NCI began in January 2007.

In an age when the media dialogue is thought to move at lightning speed, however, what may be most striking is how little the coverage and discussion on this topic have shifted since the event occurred Sunday, May 1. Humor, which was a strong initial response, has dropped off some in social media, but it still remains one of the most prevalent themes on Facebook and Twitter. Otherwise, the discussion over the first few days has remained fundamentally unchanged, deepening rather than quickly moving on to new dimensions of story in the way that we typically see, sometimes before the facts are fully reported. The calculus over who will benefit politically, for instance, has not shifted substantially. Similarly, the suspicions that bin Laden’s death was a hoax have not changed appreciably.

To produce this analysis, the Project matched its conventional coding with software provided by Crimson Hexagon, which allows researchers to analyze the conversation online from thousands of blogs and Twitter, Facebook and mainstream news sources in larger quantities and at faster rates than human coding can produce. According to Crimson Hexagon, their technology analyzes content “by identifying statistical patterns in the words used to express opinions on different topics.” PEJ ran three separate monitors for this report: one for mainstream news, one for blogs, and one for Twitter and Facebook combined. For each monitor, PEJ used the same Boolean search to identify relevant posts (Osama OR Laden). PEJ created a list of themes that were present in each medium related to the coverage or discussions about bin Laden’s death, and trained the monitors to recognize the presence of each theme in online text. Crimson Hexagon’s software then analyzed millions of posts and news stories to determine the percentages of conversation that fell into each category.

Reconstruction and Reaction in the Mainstream Media

In unraveling exactly how the United States found and killed Osama bin Laden, the mainstream press found themselves reporting not only on an event of major consequence, but on an operation so viscerally daring and compelling it almost seemed more like the product of a Hollywood scriptwriter than the White House Situation Room.

One quarter (25%) of the mainstream media coverage monitored from May 1 through May 4 involved reconstructing the commando mission at bin Laden’s secret hiding place. This New York Times report was typical: “Military and intelligence officials first learned last summer that a ‘high-value target’ was being protected in the compound and began working on a plan for going in to get him. Beginning in March, Mr. Obama presided over five national security meetings at the White House to go over plans for the operation.” 

While that narrative was at its peak on May 2, it remained a substantial part of the coverage as the media learned new details, such as the fact that bin Laden was not armed as initially reported, and that the al Qaeda chief had made plans to escape any such attack. Over time, and as the decision was made on May 4 not to release photos of the deceased al Qaeda leader, coverage trying to reconstruct what happened during the raid grew.

The second-biggest storyline in the mainstream press was also one that involved reporting more than analysis. It detailed reactions to bin Laden’s death from around the world and around the country, and accounted for 24% of the bin Laden coverage monitored. A Virginia television station, for instance, told of the mother of a sailor killed in the attack against the U.S.S. Cole who cried for joy until “I don’t have any more tears.” A Reuters report on the response of Palestinian leaders found the more moderate Palestinian Authority lauding the news and the more hard-line Hamas condemning the killing.

A number of other storylines trail well behind these top two, bunched closely between 6% and 11%, including the role of Pakistan in the episode, the potential impact on U.S. foreign policy and accounts of bin Laden’s life and legacy.

Yet the subject of political fallout and partisanship not only failed to emerge as a major theme (it filled 11% of the bin Laden coverage), it also did not begin to accelerate in any dramatic way. Some horserace speculation appeared, such as a Wall Street Journal story suggesting President Obama will likely get “an immediate boost in popularity.” But for a mainstream media culture that reflexively seeks out conflict, the coverage so far has projected a greater sense of national unity and that has persisted through the week.

Jokes and Hoax on Facebook and Twitter

While most mainstream media coverage is produced by professional journalists, the social media tools of Facebook and Twitter reflected more of the ordinary citizen response to the events of May 1. It also might be the most robust in quantity. Indeed, PEJ’s use of Crimson Hexagon captured nearly 7 million posts over the three days about bin Laden.  These social media users evinced a distinct news agenda, one dominated by the platforms’ central function of sharing and spreading news and information, something PEJ has often seen in its weekly New Media Index reports.

The leading overall narrative on Twitter and Facebook (at 19% of the conversation) was the sharing of jokes, which has become something of a national ritual and emotional outlet for momentous events from the triumphant to the tragic.

The humor ranged from the topical (“Breaking News: Donald Trump demands Osama Bin Laden’s death certificate”) to insult comedy. One such joke showed checkmarks next to the names of three deceased global villains—Adolf Hitler, Saddam Hussein and bin Laden—and then included the name of a living pop star who apparently rubs some people the wrong way.

The prevalence of the joke-telling decreased from May 1 to May 4, but as late as May 3, no other topic was generating more attention.

The second major theme involved debating whether bin Laden was dead. Fully 17% of the conversation on Twitter and Facebook involved the idea that the U.S. government was perpetrating a hoax in telling the world it had killed bin Laden on May 1.

One Facebook post the afternoon of May 3 read: “Did osama bin laden really die. No authentic photos, no dna evidence, not even dental evidence. Hmmm i dont think that he really did.”

A day before, @DaftLimmy tweeted: “The body of Osama Bin Laden has been “buried at sea”. How very, very convenient.”

Some percentage of this discussion, however, involved people arguing with the skeptics and contending the evidence was clear.

People also used Twitter and Facebook to simply share with each other the news that bin Laden was dead. All told, this filled 14% of the conversation monitored on these platforms.

Some posts were powerful in their brevity. “Osama Bin Laden is dead—CNBC,” noted one user. Others were considerably more demonstrative: “WWOW. I WAS JUST ON CNN AND THEY JUST SAID THAT OSAMA BIN LADEN IS CONFIRMED TO BE DEAD….WOW”.

Here, too, politics was overshadowed by other topics. The question of political fallout and who deserved credit for the mission—Obama or his predecessor, George W. Bush—combined to account for 15% of the coverage, with more Twitter and Facebook users giving the nod to the current president. One somewhat interesting trend is that on May 3 and May 4, the credit gap between the two men closed somewhat as conservatives seemed to push for more credit going to Bush. But attention to the credit narrative was actually smaller on May 4 than May 1.

Conspiracies and Concerns in the Blogosphere

In the last two years that PEJ has monitored blogging each week, we have found that the discussion on any given issue often tends to break along partisan lines and to divide in fairly broad ways. That has not been the case with the bin Laden story. One of the things that has distinguished the early discussion of the event in the blogosphere is that it has been more wide-ranging and balanced than in the other media platforms.

Five different themes accounted for between 10% and 14% of the discussion in the blogosphere and none accounted for more than 14%.

PEJ’s weekly New Media Index also tends to find that bloggers take a more contrarian or skeptical view of events than found in traditional media. Two of the top themes in the blogosphere fit that description and involved concerns that got less attention in the mainstream press. One of them (at 13%) was fear or unease about the potential retribution for the raid. In that vein, a number of bloggers reprinted sections of an Associated Press story reporting the Homeland Security Department’s warning of possible retaliatory attacks. That was the No. 2 storyline in blogs, just behind straight accounts of what happened (14%).

The second contrarian thread, which also was prominent on Twitter and Facebook (10%), was the idea that bin Laden’s death was a hoax. One such blogger declared that “it is common knowledge in intelligence circles that Bin Laden died in December, 2001, due to an untreated lung complication.” Another similarly wondered if perhaps “Obama’s dead corpse has been on ice for the best part of a decade.”

In many of the weekly NMI reports that study blogs, significant attention is paid to the political or partisan debate of the moment. But as in the other parts of the media ecosystem in the days following the May 1 raid, that was not a major element of the discussion among blogs. Combined, the question of whether Bush or Obama should get credit for the outcome accounted for 14% of the conversation. But the verdict was very mixed at 7% apiece and perhaps more significantly, attention to those narratives diminished after May 1 and remained flat for the next three days.

That was one more sign that bloggers, like Twitter and Facebook users and mainstream journalists, were using the first few days after the killing of bin Laden to process the enormity of what happened, rather than seize on the event as another proxy for our ongoing arguments about politics and policy.

About this Report

A number of PEJ staff members assisted in the production of this special report, “Steering Clear of Politics: How the Media Has Covered bin Laden’s Death.” They include: researcher Kevin Caldwell, senior researcher Paul Hitlin, research associate Jesse Holcomb, researcher Nancy Vogt, researcher and coder Steve Adams, associate director Mark Jurkowitz, deputy director Amy Mitchell, director Tom Rosenstiel and press relations associate Dana Page.

In conducting the research for this report, PEJ used software provided by Crimson Hexagon which analyzes the conversation online from thousands of blogs, Twitter, Facebook and mainstream news sources.  According to Crimson Hexagon, their technology analyzes content “by identifying statistical patterns in the words used to express opinions on different topics.”


Information on the tool itself can be found at www.crimsonhexagon.com and the in depth methodologies can be found here http://www.crimsonhexagon.com/products/whitepapers/.

The time frame for the analysis was May 1 to 4, 2011. PEJ ran three separate monitors for this report: one for mainstream news, one for blogs, and one for Twitter and Facebook combined. For each monitor, PEJ used the same Boolean search to identify relevant posts (Osama OR Laden). This resulted in a sample of more than 120,000 news stories, 100,000 blog posts, and 6.9 million posts on Twitter or Facebook. (Note: Facebook only allows a sample of their publicly available posts to be analyzed by third party applications.)

PEJ created a list of themes that were present in each medium related to the coverage or discussions about bin Laden’s death, and trained the monitors to recognize the presence of each theme in online text. Crimson Hexagon’s software then analyzed millions of posts and news stories to determine the percentages of conversation that fell into each category.

The amount of coverage devoted to the story in the mainstream press was derived from PEJ’s News Coverage Index. The full methodology for the NCI is available here.

For the complete topline, click here

via Journalism.org

Project for Excellence in Journalism (PEJ) | Navigating News Online

O prestigiado Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism analisou as fontes de tráfego dos 25 sites noticiosos americanos mais populares, entre os quais sites agregadores (como o Yahoo News), sites de órgãos que já nasceram na Web (como o Huffington Post) e sites de jornais tradicionais, como o do NY Times e o do Washington Post.

O Google continua a ser a principal fonte de tráfego para sites noticiosos, com cerca de 30 por cento do total. O Twitter mal se nota, mas o Facebook tem potencial para se aproximar, diz um estudo americano.

Os números mostram também uma fonte de tráfego menos óbvia: é o site Drudge Report, um pequeno agregador de notícias, popular sobretudo nos EUA e que ficou conhecido por ser o primeiro a publicar o escândalo do caso de Bill Clinton com Monica Lewinsky. O Drudge Report só não enviou visitantes para seis dos sites analisados – e, em alguns casos, foi responsável por muito mais tráfego do que o Facebook. LER MAIS

Navigating News Online

Cf. também.

Pew Internet & American Life Project, “Demographics of Internet users,” May, 2010.

For more on the social aspects of news, see “Understanding the Participatory News Consumer,” a study conducted by the Project for Excellence in Journalism and the Pew Internet & American Life Project.

Please click here for a PDF of topline data tables.

09

Apr

"What will people do for money?"

At the April 4, 2011 annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society the subject of moral dilemmas and what people would really do was addressed. In a study presented by Oriel FeldmanHall of Cambridge University shows that when it comes to moral studies, hypothetical scenarios do not work to determine the complexities of what people’s real decisions would be. READ MORE

mnm

Why more and more women are using pornography?

women internet pornography porn
More than six out of 10 women say they view web porn, reveals a study in 2006 by the Internet Filter Review.
A study found that 17% of women describe themselves as ‘addicted’ to online porn. READ MORE

08

Apr

Visualizing Doses of Nuclear Radiation and their Impact on Humans
In today’s world, we cannot avoid reading about millisievert numbers and alternative denominations of “dose equivalent radiation” in the news, together with comparative statements as “7.5 million times the legal limit”  (Does it matter? What about 8.5 million? 7.5 trillion anyone?) and  other relatively complex comparisons and limits that combine  exposures by hours, with those of days or years equivalent.
via sunfoundation

Visualizing Doses of Nuclear Radiation and their Impact on Humans

In today’s world, we cannot avoid reading about millisievert numbers and alternative denominations of “dose equivalent radiation” in the news, together with comparative statements as “7.5 million times the legal limit” (Does it matter? What about 8.5 million? 7.5 trillion anyone?) and other relatively complex comparisons and limits that combine exposures by hours, with those of days or years equivalent.

via sunfoundation

07

Apr

via thepoliticalnotebook:

Track threat levels to bloggers and online writers across the world with Global Voices Advocacy’s Threatened Voices Project.  Explore the interactive map of bloggers who have been threated, arrested, killed, or disappeared across the globe.  The project takes submissions on information about such bloggers, so if you have it, send it in. If a blogger you know has been arrested, let them know so they can track his or her story.  This is a really excellent collaborative data mapping project.

via thepoliticalnotebook:

Track threat levels to bloggers and online writers across the world with Global Voices Advocacy’s Threatened Voices Project.  Explore the interactive map of bloggers who have been threated, arrested, killed, or disappeared across the globe.  The project takes submissions on information about such bloggers, so if you have it, send it in. If a blogger you know has been arrested, let them know so they can track his or her story.  This is a really excellent collaborative data mapping project.

04

Apr

Estudo aponta que 260 homossexuais travestis e lésbicas foram assassinados no Brasil em 2010

02

Apr

Estudo “Os Novos Europeus” - Eurobarómetro |

Ser um país de emigrantes e de imigrantes parece ser vivido pelos portugueses como uma imposição, sem reflexos nos afectos. É, pelo menos, o que sugerem os resultados do Eurobarómetro “Os Novos Europeus”, divulgado ontem. Apenas 37 por cento dos portugueses inquiridos afirmam sentir alguma relação com outro país.

Esta percentagem faz com que Portugal esteja entre os oito países mais ensimesmados, que são encabeçados pela Itália. Pelo contrário, no Luxemburgo, 82 por cento dizem sentir uma relação próximo com outro ou outros países. A seguir vem a Suécia (82 por cento). A média na UE é de 51 por cento. Entre os portugueses que dizem ter afinidades com outro país, a França é o mais referenciado (13 por cento), seguido por um anónimo “outros”, que recolhe 11 por cento das pre- ferências, e a Espanha com 10 por cento. A Alemanha, onde Portugal tem uma forte comunidade, é referida por apenas três por cento.

Em média existem três razões principais na base da afinidade com outro Estado: ser um local habitual de férias ou de fins-de-semana, ter aí amigos e/ou familiares. Os portugueses estão em sétimo lugar quanto a esta última razão, que é apresentada por 39 por cento dos inquiridos. Já no que respeita às férias ,apenas quatro por cento o referem. Na Holanda são 65 por cento. Entre aqueles que menos dizem ter amigos ou familiares fora figuram Itália, França e Hungria.

As entrevistas foram realizadas no ano passado, já em plena crise. Mesmo assim, a esmagadora maioria dos inquiridos portugueses (86 por cento) afastou a hipótese de vir a emigrar nos próximos 10 anos. Na UE, esta opção é assumida por 66 por cento. Apenas 11 por cento dão como “totalmente provável” a hipótese de partirem para outro país. É na Letónia, na Lituânia e no Luxemburgo que se encontra a maior percentagem de candidatos.

Do inquérito resulta também a cons- tatação de que a mobilidade ainda é mais um conceito do que uma prática: só 13 por cento dos inquiridos admitem sentir ligação a outro país por terem trabalhado lá e oito por cento por aí terem estudado. Para a grande maioria, “o mais importante elemento da identidade nacional” é o de ter nascido no país a que pertence. Em média este é o aspecto privilegiado por 49 por cento. Em Portugal foi referido por 69 por cento dos inquiridos.

Por comparação a 2009, isto significa, segundo os autores do estudo, que os europeus estão a privi- legiar enfoques mais concretos em detrimento de conceitos mais subjectivos.

via O Público

# Cf. documento na íntegra: "New Europeans" - Eurobarometer (pdf)

* this survey has been commissioned in order to gain insight in European citizens’ connectedness to other countries.
Connectedness is a broad, rich concept; it can take several forms, objective or subjective. The challenge in this research was to identify a category of ‘New Europeans’: who are they, where can we find them? They were defined as people who live in the EU and have connections with more than just the country where they live. “New Europeans” tend to be hidden in the existing data sources and include children of migrants, mixed couples, international students, retirement migrants and expats.